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Frank James Marshall (August 10, 1877 – November 9, 1944), was the U.S. Chess Champion from 1909–1936, and was one of the world's strongest chess players in the early part of the 20th century. Marshall was born in New York City, and lived in Montreal, Canada from ages 8 to 19. He began playing chess at the age of 10 and by 1890 was one of the leading players in Montreal. He won the U.S. chess championship in 1904, but did not accept the title because the current U.S. champion, Harry Nelson Pillsbury, did not compete. In 1906, Pillsbury died and Marshall again refused the championship title until he won it in competition in 1909. In 1907 he played a match against World Chess Champion Emanuel Lasker for the title and lost eight games, winning none and drawing seven. They played their match in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, and Memphis from January 26 to April 8, 1907. In 1909, he agreed to play a match with a young Cuban named José Raúl Capablanca, and to most people's surprise, lost eight games, drew fourteen and won only one.