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Juarez is a 1939 American historical drama film directed by William Dieterle. The screenplay by Aeneas MacKenzie, John Huston, and Wolfgang Reinhardt is based on the novel The Phantom Crown by Bertita Harding and the play Juarez and Maximilian by Franz Werfel. The film focuses on the conflict between Maximilian I, a European political dupe who is installed as the puppet ruler of Mexico by the French, and Benito Juárez, the country's president. In 1863, Napoléon III of France, fearful he will lose Mexico to its newly-elected president Benito Juárez, circumvents the Monroe Doctrine by instituting sovereign rule and controlling an election that places Maximilian von Habsburg on the Mexican throne. Upon his arrival in the country with his wife Carlota, Maxmilian realizes he is expected to establish French supremacy by confiscating land Juárez had returned to the native people and penalizing the rebels under his command. Maximilian decides to abdicate his throne but is deterred from doing so by Carlotta. Maximillian offers Juárez the position of prime minister, and his refusal creates a rift between the two.